If Mastopathy has already been diagnosed and a suspicious focus has been found during the breast examination, further tests include cytology investigations (evaluating the cells) or histology investigations (evaluating the tissues).
Fine-needle puncture biopsy is a simple and relatively painless method for investigating the mammary gland tissues. During the procedure the fine needle mounted on a syringe is introduced into the suspicious area with further aspirating the cells into the syringe and conducting cytology investigations using the collected sample.
If more exact result is required, the biopsy procedures are conducted under ultrasound control or under X-ray control using specially designed mammography equipment to coordinate the needle position when approaching the exact location.
To obtain a tissue sample (not only cells) more traumatic methods are used: trocars (special devices used to extract tissue portions) or surgery – sectoral resection (removing the part of mammary gland) of the suspicious area. The acquired breast tissue samples are subject to histology investigation which allows for precise and objective evaluation.
Cytology and histology investigations of the mammary glands provide the following data:
- Mastopathy type and severity,
- timely diagnostics of precancerous changes in the mammary glands,
- confirming or excluding the diagnosis of breast cancer.
At the present moment specialist are able to analyze the features of on-going pathologic processes during Mastopathy already at the tissue level due to the ability of investigating the tissues.